Glossary of Terms

This glossary contains definitions used by the Project Change Frame® and other methodologies supported by Lindsay McKenna Limited.

A number of definitions are taken from the Project Management Book of Knowledge (PMBOK®) from the Project Managment Institute. These are denoted by having (PMI) at the end of the definition..

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See Control Account Plan.
Calendar Unit
The smallest unit of time used to schedule the project. The unit can be months, weeks, days, hours, minutes or shifts. Primarily used in conjunction with project management software tools. (PMI)
Cause and Effect Analysis
A method for gathering and organising ideas that might lead to a particular effect. See also Solution Effect Analysis.
See Cost Benefit Analysis.
See Control Change Board.
See Incremental Change, Substantial Change and Transformational Change.
Change Control
  1. Influences factors that create any change; including changes to project deliverables. (PMI)
  2. The Project-Change Frame® defines it as a formal process through which changes to the way the Project is managed and progressed are approved and introduced.
Change Control Board
A formally constructed group of stakeholders responsible for approving or rejecting changes to the projects baseline. (PMI)
Change Log
Records all change requests, both approved and rejected, which are made throughout the life of a Project.
Change Management
Traditionally focused on how changes unfold at an organisational and individual level, and how people respond to change.
Change Management Plan
Defines the timelines and activities that will drive in the change (approved Optimum Solution).
Change Process
A transition from the Status Quo to a new desired state. A psychological process that people need to go through to come to terms with the change.
Change Request form
Details a proposed change, the evaluation of the change, and the decision to approve or reject.
Change, Substantial
Changes which can either significantly alter the existing operations of the business, or seek to introduce new generations of products, processes or services, but within an existing framework.
Changes to the Project
Changes to the approved Project Contract, affecting benefits, scope, timings, resources required or outputs. These changes are distinct from the changes that the Project wants to deliver to the Business or Marketplace.
See Project Charter.
Charter of Accounts
Any numbering system used to monitor project costs by category (e.g. labour supplies, materials). The project chart of accounts is usually based on the primary performing organisation's corporate charter of accounts. (PMI)
Check Sheet
A method of capturing and classifying information, which assists in both presentation and analysis.
Closing Process Group
Formalises acceptance of the product, service or result and brings the project or a project phase to an orderly end. (PMI)
Formal end point of a project, either because it is completed or because it has been prematurely terminated.
Code of Accounts
Any numbering system used to uniquely identify each element of the work breakdown structure. (PMI)
Placement of project team members in the same physical location to enhance their ability to performa s a team. (PMI)
Commitment Sheet
Used to capture the commitments made by the people working on the project to the project activities and tasks, together with the quality and standard each activity or task has to achieve.
Communication Infrastructure
The mechanism(s) utilised to facilitate Project Team Member communication and information flows.
Completion (project)
A project can be defined as complete when the Sponsor and Stakeholders agree that a project has achieved its goal, the Project Team can add no further value, and the project work is integrated into and owned by the Business.
Concurrent Engineering
An approach to project staffing that calls for the implementers to be involved in the design phase. (PMI)
Configuration Management
Defines and controls changes to project deliverables. Any documented procedure used to apply technical and administrative direction and surveillance to: define and document characteristics of a system: control changes: record and report changes: ensure conformance to requirements. (PMI)
Factors which will limit the project management team's options. (PMI)
Consultative Approach
A means of achieving Stakeholder involvement and commitment. Decision making remains the responsibility of top Leaders, but only after key Stakeholders have been consulted. The results and how they are obtained are both important.
The person who finally buys goods and services, either though 3rd party distributors or retailers, or direct.
Consumers are less likely to be involved in a project than Customers, unless representatives are invited to provide feedback on concepts and prototypes or complete surveys.
Contingency Planning
  1. Plan of action to minimise or negate the adverse effects of a Risk should it occur.
  2. The development of a management plan that identifies alternative strategies to be used to ensure project success if specified risk events occur. (PMI)
Contingency Reserve
The amount of money or time needed above the estimate to reduce the risk of overruns of project objectives to a level acceptable to the organisation. (PMI)
Continuous Project Activities
These activities, once started, require ongoing attention, either for a significant part of a project's life, or right through to the end of the project.
Continuous review
The Sponsor activity of continuously reviewing work in progress during each project phase.
A mutually binding agreement, which obligates the Supplier to provide specified products and services, and the buyer to pay for them. A Supplier Contract is a legal relationship, subject to remedy in court if either party breaches it.
See also Project Contract.
Contract, Fixed Price
A contract in which the total price is fixed for the provision of a defined product or service. The amount of profit made is dependent on how the Supplier manages the costs.
Contract, Reimbursable
A contract in which the Supplier is reimbursed by the buyer for all costs incurred in undertaking the contract. The contract then specifies the amount of profit to be paid on completion of the contract.
Contract, Unit Price
A contract in which the Supplier is paid an agreed price per unit of product or service provided. The agreed unit price includes costs and profit.
The process of comparing actual performance with planned performance, analysing evaluating possible alternatives and taking appropriate corrective action as needed. (PMI)
The final phase of the Six Sigma methodology. It is where the solution and the plan are evaluated.
Control Account Plan (CAP)
A management control point where the integration of scope, budget and schedule occurs and the measurement of performance will happen. CAPs are placed at selected management points of work breakdown structure. (PMI)
Control Chart
A graphic display of the results, over time, and against established control limits, of a process. The chart is used to determine if the process is in control or in need of adjustment. (PMI)
Core Member
Project Team Members who remain with the project for considerable periods of its life. These Members are responsible for delivering significant parts of the project work and are expected to contribute across the whole of the project, not just in their area of specialism.
Corrective Action
Action taken, upon identification of gaps between performance and plan, to remedy the gaps and put the project back on track to deliver the project successfully.
Cost Benefit Analysis (CBA)
A technique for comparing the costs of taking a particular course of action with the benefits achievable from the outcome.
Cost Control
Controlling changes to budget, and re-forecasting.
Cost Monitoring
Tracking actual spend to budget, and forecasting likely spend.
Cost of Conformance
The cost of conforming to specifications, planning, training, control, validation, tests and audits. (PMI)
Cost of Nonconformance
The cost of not conforming is scrap, rework, additional work, warranty, complaint handling, product recall and expediting. (PMI)
Cost of Quality
The cost incurred to ensure quality. Includes quality planning, quality control, quality assurance and rework. (PMI)
Cost Performance Index (CPI)
The cost efficiency ratio earned value to actual costs. CPI is often used to predict the magnitude of a cost overrun using the following formula:
Projected cost at completion = BAC/CPI, where CPI = EV /  AC. PMI)
Cost Reimbursable Contract
The Supplier is reimbursed for their costs in undertaking the work.
Cost Variance (CV)
Any difference between the budgeted cost of an activity and the actual cost of that activity in earned value. CV = EV  - AC. (PMI)
Covert Resistance
Resistance which has gone underground and may remain undetected until the damage it causes has gone too far to remedy. The opposite of Overt Resistance. See also Resistance.
See Cost Performance Index.
See Critical Path Method.
Taking action to decrease the total project duration after analysing a number of alternatives to determine how to get the maximum duration for the least cost. (PMI)
Creeping Scope
A phenomenon where the uncontrolled accumulation of many additional (often minor) changes to a project can result in significant changes to the original Scope of the project, and to its ability to achieve its goals within the agreed parameters.
Critical Activity
Any activity on the critical path. Most commonly determined by using the critical path method. (PMI)
Critical Path
  1. The sequence of activities which determines the earliest completion of the project.
  2. A sequence of activities which determines the earliest possible completion (duration) of the project. The critical path is usually defined as those activities with float less than or equal to a specified value (usually zero). It is the longest path through the project. A project may have multiple critical paths. (PMI)
Critical Path Method (CPM)
A network analysis technique used to predict project duration by analysing which path (sequence of activities) has the least amount of scheduling flexibility (float or slack). Early dates are calculated using a forward pass; late dates are calculated using a backwards pass. (PMI)
Critical Success Factors
Statements of what needs to be in place in the wider Business or Marketplace in order for a Project to be progressed properly and for the Project Goal to be achieved.
If a Critical Success Factor is not in place, either the project cannot proceed, or more resource and time will be required to achieve the same goal.
A frame of reference that distinguishes one group from another, providing a unique set of formal and informal 'rules' and behaviours.
These rules help people understand what is appropriate and inappropriate, and shape individuals' beliefs and assumptions.
Customer, External
Someone who formally requests the Supplier, to carry out some work for them, and pays the Supplier for this.
Both parties enter into a Customer-Supplier relationship, which is likely to be formalised and regulated through contracts and agreements.
Customer, False
A person who acts as if their needs and requirements should be fully taken into consideration, but is not the final Customer.
If they are treated as the Customer they may misrepresent the needs of the real Customer, impede progress, and build in delays.
Customer, Internal
An employee or group of employees from the same business as the Supplier, who is the main beneficiary of the project work, and is often paying for the project and giving approval for its continuation.
See Cost Variance.

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