Glossary of Terms

This glossary contains definitions used by the Project Change Frame® and other methodologies supported by Lindsay McKenna Limited.

A number of definitions are taken from the Project Management Book of Knowledge (PMBOK®) from the Project Managment Institute. These are denoted by having (PMI) at the end of the definition..

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Parallel Activities
Activities which are independent of each other and can be carried out simultaneously.
Parametric Estimating
An estimating technique that uses a statistical relationships between historical data and other variables. (PMI)
Pareto Analysis
Also known as 80/20 principle which states that 80% of results flow from just 20% of the causes.
Participative Approach
An approach to Project Management where the scope and expectations are typically established by the top management team, and the detail input from the bottom up, involving the Project Team, Customers, Stakeholders and even Suppliers.
Path Convergence
The node in the schedule where parallel paths merge or join. At that node, delays or elongation or any converging path can delay the project. In quantitative risk analysis of the schedule, significant risk may occur at this point. (PMI)
Payback Period
The number of time periods up to the point at which cumulative revenues exceed cumulative costs and, therefore, the project has turned a profit. (PMI)
PC
See Percent Complete.
PDM
See Precedence Diagram Method.
PDU
See Professional Development Unit.
Percent Complete (PC)
An estimate, expressed as percent, of the amount of work that has been completed on an activity or group of activities. (PMI)
Performance Reporting
Collecting and disseminating information about project performance to help assess project progress. Includes status reporting, progress measurement and forecasting. (PMI)
Pie Chart
A method of displaying data so as to show the proportionate parts of a whole.
Planned Value (PV)
The physical work scheduled plus the authorised budget to accomplish the scheduled work. (PMI)
Planning
Identifying all the work required to achieve a goal, then breaking down this work into manageable units that can be assigned, scheduled, resourced, tracked and organised.
Planning Process Group
Refines objectives and plans the course of action required to attain the objectives and scope that the project has undertaken to address. (PMI)
PMI
See Project Management Institute
Portfolio (Project-Portfolio)
A collection of projects selected to secure the achievement of the overall vision and strategies of a Business. These projects can be totally independent of each other, or organised into Programmes.
Portfolio Management
The framework through which decisions are made on which projects are started, stopped and modified to secure the achievement of the overall vision and strategies of a Business.
Post-Project Warranty
A formal agreement between the Project Team and Customers/ Stakeholders on the nature and level of any support to be provided to the latter following completion of the project.
Precedence Diagram Method (PDM)
  1. A version of a Network Diagram that helps to identify and illustrate dependency relations between activities.
  2. A network diagramming technique in which activities are represented by nodes. Activities are linked by precedence relationships to show the sequence in which the activities are to be performed. Also called Activity-on-Node (AON). (PMI)
PRINCE2
PRINCE2 (PRojects IN Controlled Environments) is a process-based method for effective project management. PRINCE2 is a de facto standard used extensively by the UK Government and is widely recognised and used in the private sector, both in the UK and internationally. The method PRINCE2 is in the public domain, offering non-proprietorial best practice guidance on project management. PRINCE2 is a registered trademark of OGC(the Office of Government Commerce). The Project-Change Frame® is compatable with PRINCE2
Principles
The agreed rules, processes and norms that help shape and govern how the Team works together to achieve its goals.
Prioritisation
In the context of Project-Portfolio Management, determining the order in which projects can enter the portfolio or are removed from it.
Problem Statement
A written definition of a problem.
Process
The sequence of activities and decisions required to convert a known input into a planned output.
Process Improvement
The act and intent of improving a process, by increasing the quality and consistency of the output and/or reducing the time and cost involved in executing the process.
Process Management
The achievement of the same output, within the agreed tolerances, and to the quality specification, every time the process is followed,
Procurement
The processes required to acquire goods and services.
Product Scope
The features and functions that characterise a product or service.
Professional Development Unit (PDU)
Unit used by PMI for qualification purposes. One PDU is earned for each contact hour spent in structured learning, which is relevant to project management.
Programme
A set of interdependent projects aligned to a common vision and goal.
Programme Leader
The person accountable for the co-ordination and integration of a set of interdependent projects to ensure that the overall Programme Goal is achieved.
Programme Management
The management of an interdependent set of projects, all aligned to a common vision and change goal.
Progress Report
A document that provides a structured approach for communicating project progress through the Project-Change Frame®.
Project
A temporary endeavour designed to achieve a pre-determined result. This result is achieved through a set of activities designed to achieve a predetermined result within specified time and cost constraints.
Project Brief
A document created in some methodologies, which serves to define exactly what the Project is about. The Project Brief serves as the formal contract between the Project Team and the Business on what will be delivered to the Business, by when, and conversely what the Business will provide the Project Team to enable the successful delivery of the Project.
See also Project Charter and Project Contract.
Project-Change Frame®
A framework providing the structure and flow for progressing an individual project.
It consists of four States, ten Phases, and thirty-two Steps, which break the work into manageable chunks in a logical sequence, in which the fundamental and technical specification of the project are progressively defined and created.
Project Charter
A formal document providing authority to a project manager to conduct a project within scope, quality, time and cost and resource restraints as laid down in the document. (PMI)
See also Project Brief and Project Contract
Project Contract
A formal contract between the Project Team and the Business detailing what will be delivered to the Business, by when, and what the Business will provide to the Project Team to enable the successful delivery of the Project.
See also Project Brief and Project Charter.
Project Coordinator
Reports to a higher level manager than do the functional managers. Therefore, does have some authority to assign work. (PMI)
Project Cost Management
A subset of project management that includes the processes required to ensure that the project is completed within the approved budget. (PMI)
Project Expediter
Coordinates projects across the various functional units. The expediter has limited formal authority. This form is used when the project's cost and importance is relatively low. (PMI)
Project Finance Report
A standard format report for tracking project costs.
Project Goal
The desired end result of the Project, which can be defined as a specific measurable accomplishment to be achieved within a specified time and cost constraint.
Project Leader
The person accountable for achieving the Project Goal within the agreed time constraints, to the agreed quality, and within the agreed budget, so that the desired changes are sustained and the benefits are realised.
In order to achieve this outcome, the Project Leader must build an effective team. satisfy the Customer(s), and earn the commitment of the project's Stakeholders.
Project Life Cycle
The sequence of phases through which the project will evolve. It is absolutely fundamental to the management of projects, and it is the only thing that uniquely distinguishes projects from non-projects. It will significantly affect how the project is structured. (PMI)
Project Management
  1. The process of directing and coordinating human and material resources throughout the project life cycle using modern management techniques to achieve established objectives of scope, quality, time, cost and stakeholder satisfaction.(PMI)
  2. The Project-Change Frame® defines it as managing the progress of an individual project, from the point it is approved, through to achievement of the Project Goal. Project management involves a 'technical' side - planning, organising, directing and controlling all project-related activities and resources in order to achieve the Goal and deliver the required set of results.
    It also involves a 'human' side - selling the need for the project, motivating the Project team, identifying and involving the people affected by the project, and obtaining the organisation's commitment to sustain the changes once they have been implemented.
Project Management Institute
The PMI is a globally recognised for project management certification.
Project Management Office (PMO)
The organisational entity with full time personnel to provide a focal point for the discipline of project management. Also known as project office, project management centre for excellence, or directorate of project managers. (PMI)
Project Management Process
Project cycle, phases and activities are managed by the techniques and tools of the ten project management elements to ensure that all project control gates are completed satisfactorily and that project objectives are accomplished. The formality of application is tailored to the type of project and value and risk of the project. (PMI)
Project Management Professional (PMP®)
Qualification from the PMI.
Project Management System
The aggregation of the processes, tools, techniques, methodologies, resources, and procedures to manage a project. (PMI)
Project Management Team
The members of the project team who are directly involved in project management activities. On smaller projects, the project management team may include virtually all of the project team members. (PMI)
Project Manager
The individual responsible for managing a project. (PMI)
Project Phase
  1. A group of related project activities that come together with the completion of a deliverable. (PMI)
  2. The Project-Change Frame® divides a project into ten Phases that outline the evolution of a project. Each Phase is subdivided into Steps, containing the activities and tasks that should be undertaken at that stage of the project.
Project Plan
A formal, approved document used to guide both project execution and project control. The primary uses of the project plan are to document planning assumptions and decisions, to facilitate communication among stakeholders, and to document approved scope, cost and schedule baselines. (PMI)
Project-Portfolio
A collection of projects. The projects in a Project-Portfolio can be totally independent of each other, or some of them can be an integral part of a Programme sharing a common change vision and goal.
Project-Portfolio Management
Provides the framework through which decisions are made on which projects are started, stopped and modified to secure the achievement of the overall vision and strategies of a Business or Function.
Project Proposal
See Proposal.
Project Quality Management
The process required to ensure that the project will satisfy the needs for which it is undertaken. Modern quality management compliments project management in that both recognise the importance of customer satisfaction and prevention over inspection. (PMI)
Project Risk Management
Includes the processes concerned with identifying, analysing and responding to project risk. (PMI)
Project Scope
  1. The work that must be done in order to deliver a product with the specified features and functions.
  2. Also see Scope.
Project States
The four States defined in the Project-Change Frame® provide a high-level overview of the evolution of a project. They are:
  • The Foundations for Change
  • Developing the Optimum Solution
  • Implementing Change
  • Review
Project Strategy
The overall approach to be employed in carrying out your project.
Project Team
An interdependent group of people responsible for the management and successful completion of a project.
Project Team Contact Sheet
A document for capturing the names of all Project Team Members, their role in the Project, and their contact details.
Project Team Member
  1. Person who is actively engaged in the project with responsibility for one or more project milestones or outputs.
  2. Person who reports either directly or indirectly to the project manager. (PMI)
Proposal
A formal document outlining an idea for a new project, which provides broad estimates of benefits and costs, and attempts to answer the question, "Why should we initiate this project?"
PV
See Planned Value.

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